The Czech country report focusses on the general presentation of the education system and the system of guidance services supporting learning regulated by education legislation (mainly the Public Education Act).
The Czech system operates a regionally established, state-funded institutional network for the care of pupils with special educational needs as well as pupils with other learning or social difficulties. Specialists (special education teacher, school psychologist, learning support counsellor) are also available within schools, who cooperate with the teaching staff in the development, implementation and monitoring of the pedagogical development plan of the students involved in the development. Career guidance is integrated into public education.
After 2010, a wider reform was launched with the agreement of part of the profession to promote inclusive education, but the school conditions for this are not yet in place. The funding mechanism provides more opportunities to expand school staff, but in most cases, in the absence of properly trained professionals, institutions are not prepared for change, either. The concept of inclusion still leaves some to be clarified, as does the social acceptance of reforms.
Main Parts of the Document
Structural presentation of the Czech education system
The structure of the Czech education system is similar to the Hungarian system in many respects. Compulsory education is divided into 3 main levels:
1. kindergarten: 3-6 years old (recommended, but only the last year is mandatory since 2017).
2. primary school: from the age of 6, Czech students study in a single primary school lasting 9 years, which is divided into two parts (typically 5 + 4 years); In addition, there is a 6-8 grade structural secondary school model that separates in lower secondary education, as well as the own system of art schools.
3. secondary education: secondary education lasts from the age of 15-18 / 19, in which they are present
• grammar schools providing general knowledge (output of the baccalaureate, which is a requirement for entry into higher education);
• vocational secondary schools (also gives vocational exams and high school diplomas);
• and vocational training institutions (apprenticeship model, output is a vocational qualification);
• after obtaining the vocational qualification, a high school diploma can be obtained in 1-2 years in many schools.
In the Czech Republic, the proportion of secondary school students who choose vocational training is higher (about 75%). The diversity of secondary education, according to the authors, partly explains the high heterogeneity of educational outcomes in schools. The age limit for compulsory schooling is 17 years, the rate of early school leaving is good in European comparison (6.7% in 2017)
Schools can be run by municipalities, regional authorities or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. The main manager of the Czech school system is the ministry, which defines the principles of the school system, designates and supervises the tasks required for quality education, and plays a significant role in regional authorities with autonomy (68%), drawing up long-term education and development plans.